Tag Archives: Operating System

Some common terms related to Process Synchronisation

Process Synchronization is very important to an Operating System where data consistency is concerned. Some of the common terms related to Process Synchronization are as follows :

Critical Section : This is a part of the code which accesses shared resources and it is required that the critical section should not be executed when there are than one processes for the scheduler to choose from.

Atomic Operation : There may be some set of instructions that may have to be executed together. They are indivisible. No one can view the intermediate the status of the operations neither can anyone interrupt them.

Mutual Exclusion : When one process is accessing the critical section that edits a global data no other process should access a critical region that changes the shared resource.

Deadlock : A deadlock is a condition where one process is waiting for a resource to be released by another process which is itself waiting for another process to be released by the current process. Unlike other problems faced by the Operating Systems, this problem is permanent and there is no solution to it.

Race Condition : This is the condition in which multiple threads or processes can access and edit the data in the critical region and the value of the resource depends on the order of relative speed of execution of the threads.

Starvation : A starved process is one which is overlooked by the scheduler. Although it is ready to execute it is not provided with the resources that it requires, for various reasons.

Some of the problems faced during concurrency :

  • Sharing global resources : When two processed access the same variable depends upon the order of usage of the two processes. It depends upon the order in which they access the critical region.
  • Request for resources : When process requests for a particular resource and then enters the wait state, other processes will not be able to access that resource. This may even lead to deadlock.

Operating System

Today, my friends were discussing how the kernel is related to the operating system. I learnt something new about it and thought I would share with you. So here goes…

An Operating System is something that controls the functioning of the hardware of the system and at the same time serves the applications designed by the users.

A kernel is a very important part of an operating system. Its basic function is to manage the hardware and software of the system. It is something that connects that processes taking place at the hardware level and the Applications.

Applications are a set of statements that are specified to perform certain set of duties. An application is that which that helps you perform a certain set of activities.Thus, it is different from an operating system(that runs a system) and a programming language is kind of duties.

The hardware, the operating system, the kernel and the applications are related as follows :

Relation between the OS, kernel, hardware and applications